Over One Hundred and Seven Wonders of The Ancient World
Part 2

Over One Hundred and Seven Wonders of The Ancient World
Part 1 Wonders of the Middle east, Africa and Europe

South America
Tiahuanico Bolivia-A5,B
Ollantaytambo Peru-A4
Sacsayhuaman Cuzco Peru-A4,D
Machu Pichu Peru-A3,D
Pisac Peru
Inca Roads and Bridges
Moche Pyramids Peru
Chavín de Huántar Peru
Chan Chan Peru
Nazca Lines Peru
Colossal Statues of San Augustin Columbia-A1,B
Tairona Terraces Columbia
Brazil's Stonehenge
Piaui cave paintings Brazil
Monte Verde Puerto Montt Chile 12,000 BCE
Easter Island-A3,B,D

North America
Olmec Heads-A3,B
Quirigua Guatemala-A3
Chichen-Itza Mexico
Teotihuacan Mexico
Tenochtitlan Mexico
Coatlinchan Mexico
The Great Pyramid of Cholula Mexico
Palenque Mexico-A1
El Tajin's Famous "Pyramid Of The Niches" Mexico
Tula Mexico
Mont Alban Mexico
Uxmal Mexico
Yaxchilan Mexico
Copan Honduras-A1
Piedras Negras Guatemala
Tikal Guatemala
Spheres of Costa Rica-A1
Bimini Road
Earthworks of Newark Ohio
Monk's Mound Cahokia Illinois and Cahokia's Woodhenge near St. Louis
Poverty Point Ridge Mounds Louisiana
Moundville Alabama
Mount Rushmore National Memorial South Dakota-C
Crazy Horse Monument South Dakota-C
Chaco Road System and Chaco Canyon New Mexico
Cliff Palace Mesa Verde Colorado
Canyon de Chelly Arizona
Blythe Intaglios California
The Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee
Coral Castle Florida-A1

Mausoleum of the First Qin Shi Huang Emperor at Mount Li-B
The Great Wall of China
Big Bell Temple Peking (Beijing) China
The Leshan Giant Buddha China-C
The Bingling Temple China-C
Tomb of Emperor Nintoku Japan
Tomb of Ishibutai Japan-A4
Masuda no Iwafune in Asuka Japan-A5
Yonaguni Japan-A1,C
The Buddha at Kôtoku-in Kamakura Japan
Great Buddha at Todai-ji Japan
Horyu-ji Temple Japan
Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites Korea-A4
The pillars of Ashoka India-A2
Khajuraho Temples-D
Konark Sun Temple The Black Pagoda, India-A1,B
Bhuvaneswar India-B
The Great Stupa at Sanchi India-A2,B
Bodh Gaya India-B
Taj Mahal India-A1,B
Gwalior Fortress India
Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra and Ellora Caves India-C
The Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro India
Mehrgarh and Harappa India
Vijayanagara India-A1,C
The Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram India-A1,B,C
Statue of Jain Saint Gomateswara (Bahubali)at Karnataka India-A5
Sigiriya: Mount of Remembrance Sri Lanka-C
Anuradhapura Sri Lanka
Buddhist Monastery at Paharpur Bangladesh
Angkor Thom and Angkor Wat-A1,B,D
Temples of Bagan Burma-B
Po Klaung Garai Temple and My Son Temple complex Viet Nam
Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon, Burma
Borobudur Mahayana Buddhist monument-B
Pyramid of Rapa Iti Island And monuments from other south Pacific Islands-A1
New Seven Wonders of the World
Preliminary Conclusions
Whether this theory is right or wrong

South America

Tiahuanico Bolivia

"One of the construction blocks from which the pier was fashioned weighs an estimated 440 tons (equal to nearly 600 full-size cars) and several other blocks are between 100 and 150 tons. The quarry for these giant blocks was on the western shore of Titicaca, some ten miles away. There is no known technology in the ancient Andean world that could have transported stones of such massive weight and size. The Andean people of 500 AD, with their simple reed boats, could certainly not have moved them. Even today, with modern advances in engineering and mathematics, we could not fashion such a structure." source: sacredsites .com
The 440 ton estimate has been disputed. The largest stone at Tiahuanaco is probably about 130 tons. The larger estimate seems to have been the result of a misrepresentation that has been repeated without scrutiny by many sources. A similar incident seems to have happened in the case of the Baalbek stones that have been estimated at over 1,000 tons. The more reliable estimate for the trilithon stones is probably 700 to 900 tons. The most reliable source for these estimates is the stone themselves. If it turns out they are larger the bigger estimates can be restored.
Tiahuanaco is approximately 12,500 ft. above sea level. the air is much thinner than at sea level. Farming is much tougher and people who are not accustomed to the altitude tire easy from lack of oxygen. Even people who are accustomed to the altitude would still have a hard time coping with the environment let alone moving stones over 100 tons over rough terrain.




Ollantaytambo Peru

Ollantaytambo is 9,000 ft. above sea level and it appears to have 6 colossal stones well over 100 tons although I don't have exact dimensions.





Sacsayhuaman Cuzco Peru

Some believe the walls were a form of fortification. Like much Inca stonework there is still mystery surrounding how they were constructed. The structure is built in such a way that a single piece of paper will not fit between many of the stones. This precision, combined with the rounded corners of the limestone blocks, the variety of their interlocking shapes, and the way the walls lean inward, is thought to have helped the ruins survive devastating earthquakes in Cuzco. The longest of three walls is about 400 meters. They are about 6 meters tall. Estimated volume of stone is over 6,000 cubic meters. The largest limestone block is estimated at 128 tonnes. source: "Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris Scarre 1999



www.photoseek.com Sacsayhuaman


Machu Pichu Peru





Pisac Peru


Pisac agricultural terraces and ruins

Inca Roads and Bridges





Moche Pyramids Peru




Chavín de Huántar Peru

The drainage canals and air ducts of Chavín de Huántar far exceeded simple engineering. The central platform was 11 meters tall. The southern platform was 16 meters tall. The northern platform was 14 meters tall. source: "Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris Scarre 1999




Chan Chan Peru



Nazca Lines Peru

These include lines which ran absolutely true for 6 miles or more.







Colossal Statues of San Augustin Columbia



Tairona Terraces Columbia



Brazil's Stonehenge



Piaui cave paintings Brazil



Monte Verde Puerto Montt Chile 12,000 BCE



Easter Island

It is difficult to imagine how the islanders moved such a large statue from the quarry four miles (six kilometers) away; Paro is the island's largest transported moai. Lying face down, toppled from its ahu, Paro weighs 82 tons and is 32.45 feet (9.89 meters) long.
Easter Island is only 64 square miles. It has a very limited amount of fresh water. There is a small lake in the top of the dormant volcano however when rainfall is low that probably doesn't provide as much water. It would be helpful to know what the climate was like while the people that lived there were moving those stones. It is hard to imagine primitive people having much spare time in such a remote area. simply growing food or fishing should take up a lot of their time.






North America

Olmec Heads

The Olmecs carved about 300 colossal monuments including a lot of Heads and Alters weighing between 5 and over 50 tons. They transported them between 35 and 65 miles through the rain forests. The biggest Olmec cities were at San Lorenzo, Tres Zapotes and La Venta. source: "Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris Scarre 1999
The colossal heads are made out of volcanic basalt which only weighs about 1.9 tons per cubic meter. The Rancho Cobata is approximately 24 cubic meters probably weighs about 45 tons. This may mean that The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World may have over estimated the largest stone but not by much. There are few stones with this low a density.






Quirigua Guatemala

"The Maya somehow transported enormous stones through the jungle from distant quarries, apparently without the aid of either wheeled carts or beasts of burden. Artists then used only rudimentary stone tools to execute the intricate carvings, before raising the ponderous sculptures to their present vertical positions. Stele E at Quirigua weighs an astonishing 65 tons and stretches 10.5 meters in length, with sculptures covering its 8-meter panels." source: mayadiscovery.com
Stele D, Alter M and Zoomoorph B shown in the wikipedia or delange.org site all appear to be at least 15 to 30 tons.




Chichen-Itza Mexico



Teotihuacan Mexico

In addition to the pyramids of the sun and the moon there are about 600 pyramid like structures most of which have 3-5 levels and a flat platform. there are also many apartments found in the city. the original city was supposed to cover about 8 square miles. It was said by the Aztecs to have been surmounted by a huge stone figure related to the moon but this figure was uncovered (weighing 22 tonnes and was somehow lifted to the top of the pyramid) and it is thought more likely that it represents a water deity.
source: Walker, Charles, 1980 "Wonders of the Ancient World"




Tenochtitlan Mexico

The Aztec sun stone was located in the ruins. this stone is 4 meters in diameter and weighs over 20 tonnes. It was once located half way up the great pyramid. This stone calendar was made around 1470 CE under the rule of King Axayacatl, the predecessor of Montezuma. this calendar is said to tell the Aztec history and prophesy for the future.
source: Walker, Charles, 1980 "Wonders of the Ancient World"




Coatlinchan Mexico

A colossal statue over a thousand years old that was thought to represent Tlaloc was found in the town of Coatlinchan Mexico. This statue was made of Basalt and weighed an estimated 168 tons. It was moved to the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City in 1964 on a special trailer with dozens of rubber tires. This didn't happen until they promised the residents of the town to provide a large amount of public works. Some of the villagers still attempted to sabotage the vehicle but the secular authority prevailed in the end. The village people lined up to watch the statue as it passed by. Then there was a large unseasonable downpour. The downpour continued through the night. Many people may have interpreted this as a sign from the Gods. Some scholars believe that the statue may not have been Tlaloc at all but his sister or some other female deity. source: Time Life Lost Civilizations series:Aztecs: Reign of Blood and Splendor (1992) p.45-47





The Great Pyramid of Cholula Mexico




Palenque Mexico

Pyramid: 60 meters wide 42.5 meters deep 27.2 meters high
Summit temple 25.5 meters wide 10.5 meters deep 11.4 meters high
Largest stones weigh 12 to 15 tons. These were on top of the Pyramid.
Total volume of pyramid and temple: 32,500 cu. meters
estimated labour: 125,000 person days
source: "The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris scarre 1999



El Tajin's Famous "Pyramid Of The Niches" Mexico



Tula Mexico




Mont Alban Mexico



Uxmal Mexico



Yaxchilan Mexico



Copan Honduras



Piedras Negras Guatemala near Mexican border



Tikal Guatemala



Spheres of Costa Rica


Bimini Road

New discoveries at Bimini??
Don't jump to conclusions yet but if additional confirmation is found mysterious-america.net may be on to something. This article is already being cut and pasted on other online "news" sources. If it is true I'm sure there will be additional dives to confirm it by other people.






Earthworks of Newark Ohio



Monk's Mound Cahokia Illinois and Cahokia's Woodhenge near St. Louis




http://stardate.org/nativeskies/programs/20010927.html Woodhenge

Poverty Point Ridge Mounds Louisiana




Moundville Alabama



Mount Rushmore National Memorial South Dakota


Carving History



Crazy Horse Monument South Dakota


Chaco Road System and Chaco Canyon New Mexico





Cliff Palace Mesa Verde Colorado




Canyon de Chelly Arizona




Blythe Intaglios California





The Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee




Coral Castle Florida






Mausoleum of the First Qin Shi Huang Emperor at Mount Li

Approximately 8,000 terra cotta statues of armed warriors were located in this tomb. The weapons were all chromium protected which was a technique that was not reinvented until the 1930's. These statues were buried with Emperor Qin Shi Huang when he died about 210 BCE. This may tell us much about the way they lived but the people who built them never received much if any benefit from their work. Qin Shi Huang went on a book burning binge so much of the story of how they were built was lost.




The Great Wall of China




Big Bell Temple Peking (Beijing) China

"The Great Bell Temple is located on the western outskirts of Beijing. The temple houses China's largest bell made in 1406 under the reign of emperor Yongle in the Ming dynasty. The bell is 7 meters (23ft) high, 3 meters (10ft) in diameter and 46.5 tons in weight. 17 Buddhist scriptures are inscribed on the entire surface of the Bell both inside and out, totaling 227,000 Chinese characters." source: essential-architecture.com



The Leshan Giant Buddha China

The Leshan Giant Buddha was built during the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It is carved out of a cliff face that lies at the confluence of the Minjiang, Dadu and Qingyi rivers in the southern part of Sichuan province in China, near the city of Leshan. 71 meters (233 feet) tall




The Bingling Temple China

These caves culminate at a large natural cavern where wooden walkways precariously wind up the rock face to hidden cliff-side caves and the giant Maitreya Buddha that stands more than 27 meters, or almost 100 feet, tall.




Tomb of Emperor Nintoku Japan

The mound is 486 meters long.
The diameter of circular rear mound is 249 meters.
The width of the triangular front mound is 305 meters.
The volume of the mound is almost 1.4 million cubic meters.
The estimated number of haniwa cylinders is 20,000.
the tomb covers estimate 32.3 hectares.
source: "Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris Scarre 1999




Tomb of Ishibutai Japan

Ishibutai has a rectangular chamber measuring 25ft by 11ft by 15ft high approached by a passage 38ft in length, and roofed by two capstones each weighing between 60 and 70 tons each. (10) Modern estimates place the largest stone at approximately 75 tons. This estimate didn't come from the most reliable source however the sites below both show pictures of the stones in question and they do seem to be about right.



Masuda no Iwafune in Asuka Japan

This is a large stone structure approximately 11 meters in length, 8 meters in width, and 4.7 meters In height. source:asukanet.gr.jp The upper surface is flat, with a shallow trough and two square holes. Rough Estimate of volume 200 cubic meters weight 500-550 tons. These measurements might be a little high judging by the picture but not a lot. Even if it is only 400 tons it is enormous.
I'm not sure whether this was carved in place or whether it was relocated. It appears as if it may have been relocated it isn't in a rocky area. If this is true moving it would have been a monumental task since it is near the top of a hill.





Yonaguni Japan

The Yonaguni ceremonial structure was found of the coast of Yonaguni Japan in 1985. Since then it has been a major source of controversy. They clearly appear to be manmade to me i suspect you'll agree when you see the pictures. However if they are manmade it would almost certainly prove that many of the assumptions about the early development of civilization are wrong. Yonaguni has been submerged under water since the last iceage. If this was built by man it would have been built 8,000BCE or earlier. Some of the experts seem to be looking for a way to explain this without considering the possibility that there was a more advanced civilization earlier than previously believed.

Some people claim that these structures were carved out of rock on site which would mean that they wouldn't have had to move these rocks since it was made at a quarry.

The exception to this theory seems to be 2 Megaliths that appear to weigh at least 20 to 40 tons. Some experts have claimed that these 2 megaliths were precisely placed if so they would have been moved by ancient civilization at least 10,000 years ago. Another possibility is that the tides moved them. If this is true it is unlikely that they would have been placed in a precise location. Ocean tides certainly have moved colossal stones at times. The statues at Easter Island were once knocked over by a tidal wave and I have seen some multi-ton stones that were moved during storms by the tides myself.

The megalithic entrance tunnel leading to parallel megaliths may also include evidence of colossal stones moved. If you look closely you can see what looks like a joint on both sides of the entrance that appears to be to precise to be natural. they are both at the same height. If it was made by man I can't imagine how they got the stone on top in place. This is subject to confirmation though.

According to the Morien Institute there are more under water structures near by however they have yet to show pictures of these new sites. It appears as if major parts of history may have to be rewritten. However it will be necessary to confirm the details on this before the final verdict is in.




Yonaguni Megaliths

Megalithic entrance tunnel leading to parallel megaliths.


The Buddha at Kôtoku-in Kamakura Japan



Great Buddha at Todai-ji Japan




Horyu-ji Temple Japan




Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites Korea

Gochang Dolmen Site
"This group of dolmen are the largest and most varied. They are known as the Jungnim-ri dolmens and are centered in Maesan village. The dolmen were built from east to west at the foot of a series of hills at an altitude of fifteen to fifty meters. Generally, the capstones of the dolmens average around are one to 5.8 meters in length and can weigh ten to 300 tons. 442 dolmen have been documented and classified based on the size of the capstone. This group is believed to have been constructed around the seventh century BCE." source: wikipedia.org
"The dolmen in Kanghwa (Ganghwa in new spelling) is a northern-type, table-shaped dolmen where ancestral rites were held. It is the biggest stone of this kind in South-Korea, measuring 2.6 x 7.1 x 5.5 meters." source: worldheritagesite.org
A cube 2.6x7.1x5.5 would be 101.5 cubic meters. If it was granite one of the harder and heavier stones; it would be about 3 tons per cubic meter. This would mean it is about 300 tons. However the Dolmen is not a cube. If these are the maximum dimensions it would probably be about 200-225. wikipedia.org cited worldheritage.org as a source so this is actually only one source that made this mistake.




The pillars of Ashoka

Originally, there must have been many of them, although only ten with inscriptions still survive. Averaging between forty and fifty feet in height, and weighing up to fifty tons each, all the pillars were quarried at Chunar, just south of Varanasi and dragged, sometimes hundreds of miles, to where they were erected.






Khajuraho Temples

The Khajuraho Temples were built in the tenth century CE. There were originally 85 temples only 22 survive but archeologists have found partial remains of much more. There are an enormous volume of quality carvings famous for sexual explicitly. The stones were put together with incredible precision. The columns and architraves are made out of colossal one piece stones that are probably over 10-30 tons.
According to a recent episode of lost worlds on the history channel their masonry expert Alex attempted to recreate one of the statues that was only 3 or 4 feet tall. It took him 60 days. He didn't specify how many hours. Someone who specialized only in carving and did it all the time almost certainly could do it faster if they had the skill but in order to build so many statues so fast they would have had to have an enormous amount of highly skilled sculptures spending an enormous amount of time doing nothing but carving.



Konark Sun Temple The Black Pagoda, India




http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/ Konark Sun Temple

Bhuvaneswar India



The Great Stupa at Sanchi


The Great Stupa at Sanchi pictures

Bodh Gaya, India




The Taj Mahal India




Gwalior Fortress India




Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra and Ellora Caves India









The Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro

The baths cover an area of 200 hectares. there is probably as much stone if not more than the pyramid of Cheops however it was made out of much smaller blocks and built over a longer time. The citadel was 10 hectares and 12 meters tall. It had a volume of 1,152,000 cubic meters. the great Bath is 12x7 meters by 2.4 meters deep with a volume of 160 cubic meters. The lower town is 190 hectares 9 meters high with an estimated population of 40,000. source: "Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris scarre 1999




Mehrgarh and Harappa India





Vijayanagara India



Narasimha monolith

The Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram India






Statue of Jain Saint Gomateswara (Bahubali)at Karnataka India

"The town is 50 km from Hassan and 10 km from Chananrayanpatna. It has two hillocks, Indragiri and Chandragiri. The former one is also known as Vindhyagiri, and stands 143 meters high. About five hundred steps lead to the top of this picturesque hillock where 58.6 ft high Bahubali (Gomata) statue stands. It is a monolith carved around 980 A.D. and considered to be a landmark in the annals of world art. His broad shoulders are 26 feet across." source: kamat.com
The estimate of the shoulders is probably a little high but several other sources have confirmed the height and the fact that it was built out of a single piece of stone. The shoulders are probably between 23 and 26 feet wide. The Base seems to be about 33 feet wide. After making some rough estimates of the dimensions I'm estimating it is about 200 cubic meters. This is made out of granite which weighs about 3 tons per cubic meter. That would be about 600 tons. This estimate has a large margin of error since it is based on rough guesses and incomplete dimensions. It is almost certainly between 300 and 700 tons. There are some reference to it being erected and it seems highly unlikely that it would have been standing up naturally on the top of a hill. There are also reference to the steps being carved out of the rock. It was made out of the granite from the hill but it may still have been necessary to shift it a little bit or erect it.










Sigiriya: Mount of Remembrance Sri Lanka




Anuradhapura Sri Lanka




Buddhist Monastery at Paharpur Bangladesh



Angkor Thom and Angkor Wat

In 1858 Henri Mouhot sketched the ruins of Angkor on a trip to Cambodia sponsored by the Royal Geographic Society. His sketches led to the discovery of Angkor by a lot of Europeans who were previously unaware of the Temples.
In 1864 and 1873 Louis Delaporte took trips to Angkor on expeditions sponsored by the French. He also sketched his trips including himself in at least 1 picture. This included pictures of them transporting colossal statues over 10 feet tall back to France on the river. Some of the many statues taken from the Preah Khan Temple and other temples were lost in the river when the rafts capsized.

At the beginning of the ninth century Jayavarman II rose to prominence over other rival Khmer rulers and established a new Mandala (country). He initially built a series of square single celled towers with tall stepped roofs on Mount Kulen. He later established a new capital called Hariharalaya and built even more there. Jayavarman II was one of many leaders who rose to the status of a "God".

Jayavarman II was succeeded by his son Jayavarman III and then King Indravarman I who built the Preah Ko and Bakong temples. The Bakong used 100 times as much construction material as any previous temple. Angkor temples were often surrounded by moats Indravarman built a huge water system that benefitted from the fish stocks of the Tonle Sap.

The first King to establish a temple (Phnom Bakheng) on the site of Angkor was Yasovarman who succeeded Indravarman in 889 CE. This is the first of many temples at Angkor that also served as mausoleums. they were built over a period of about 400 years. The Bakheng was on a rectangular base that rose in 5 levels. The Bakheng included 109 towers 5 main ones in the center and 104 distributed symmetrically over the lower 4 levels. This was supposed to have astronomical symbolism representing the heavens including the 12 year cycle of Jupiter.

Angkor Wat
When king Suryavarman II the last king built his temple he wanted to build the most spectacular one of all but there wasn't enough room within the walls of the old city which later became Angkor Thom so he built Angkor Wat outside the walls. It had as much stone as the Temple of Khafre, over 5 million tons of stone. Angkor Thom and other surrounding temples which were built over a period of 400 years probably have at least 10 times that. Angkor Wat was built on an enormous foundation of mostly small sandstones, sand and laterite slab blocks. The laterite blocks are similar to mud bricks. they are made out of a local soil which hardens when exposed to the air.

Angkor Wat was built between 1113 and 1153 CE. Building such a large monument as Angkor Wat in such a short tome is almost as tough as building the pyramid of Cheops in only 23 years. Assuming they really were built that fast which is hard to believe. That involves moving and carving and installing 370 tons of stone every day each step of the way. Virtually all of this stone including columns lintels even roofs were carved. the source shows some picture of columns that were not carved so this claim might be slightly exagerated but not much. Some have claimed that Suryavarman sacrificed quality for quantity but from what I've seen of the pictures it may not have been that much of a sacrifice since they still seem to be good quality. It also involves moving an even larger volume of fill for the foundation including small sandstones, sand and laterite slab blocks. As far as I know Angkor didn't have as many colossal stones as Giza but there were still an enormous amount of multi-ton stones including many that almost certainly weighed over 10 tons. This was built by a system of virtual slave labor. The temple wasn't completed until after Suryavarman died.

Angkor Thom
His massive building projects and conquests took its toll on the kingdom which fell into decline. In 1177 the Chams invaded. Eventually Jayaverman VII rallied the Khmers and defeated the Chams. Jayaverman VII reestablished the old city as Angkor Thom with a new temple in the center. His temple was the Bayon sitting on a stone terrace included 50 towers famous for their statues of Buddas face 1 on each side of each tower. The Mandela lasted another 150 years before going into decline. Angkor Thom is a is a small city almost 4 square miles full of large temples. Most if not all the temples have a stunning amount of statues and wall carvings. Some of these wall carvings included depictions of battles against the Chams. The joints between the stones were extremely tight fits. The sandstones for all the Angkor Temples had to be transported 25 miles from the nearest quarry by boat.











Temples of Bagan Burma





Po Klaung Garai Temple and My Son Temple complex Viet Nam

At the My Son complex, there was one temple constructed of stone, the foremost stone temple in Champa civilization was the centerpiece of the complex. In 1900 French architect, artist and archeologist Henri Parmentier went to Vietnam to study Cham architecture. While there he sketched the lavishly ornamented tower of Mi Son. The [[stele]] inscription reveals that the last stone alterations to this temple were made in [[1234]]. Today, this temple is no longer standing, although it once stood at over 21m, the tallest building in the complex. Evidence gathered from the surrounding area show that it was once part of the original temple in the 4th century. In 1969 the Vietcong used this tower as a hideout and mounted a radio transmitter on the summit. After US air raids failed to knock out the tower a commando team crept in and planted explosives. The blast reduced the tower to a pile of rubble. source: Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Southeast Asia: A Past Regained (1995)


Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon, Burma

In 1608 the Portuguese plundered a 20 ton bell from the Burmese and attempted to bring it back to Portugal. they dropped it in the river and it was lost. This bell was later replaced with a 23 ton bell.

On or about 1825 the British attempted to plunder the 23 ton bell from the Burmese. They dropped it in the river. they were unable to retrieve it. The natives managed to raise it back up and retrieve it by attaching a large volume of bamboo. They brought it back to the Pagoda with technology that was more primitive than what was available to the British.

I'm not sure how they calculated the weight of the first bell perhaps they weighed the remaining one and estimated the first based on the dimensions.




Borobudur Mahayana Buddhist monument

The width is 120 meters by 120 meters deep overall height is 32 meters. There are 1. 6 million carved stones, 504 Buddha statues, 72 perforated stupas and 1,500 miniature stupas. there are 2. kilometers of bas-reliefs including 1240 bas-reliefs in all. source: "The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris scarre 1999 (Thames and Hudson) It is estimated that Borobudur took 70 years to build. It was built on a natural hill which is now eroding. UNESCO has undergone a major restoration project to preserve Borobudur. source: Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ancient India: Land Of Mystery (1994)



Pyramid of Rapa Iti Island And monuments from other south Pacific Islands

The island of Tongatapu in the Tonga Islands has the only megalithic arch in the South Pacific – the trilithon of Ha’amonga. Each of the upright coral pillars is 4.9 m high and weighs about 50 tons. The lintel, which is set into grooves in the upright stones, is 5.8 m long and weighs about 9 tons.
The island of Tinian has two of the largest standing megaliths. The pillars are 5.5 m in circumference at the base and 4.5 m at the top. They are 3.7 m high and support capitals 1.5 m high and 1.8 m in diameter. Each coral monolith weighs about 30 tons.
Monumental stone statue from Raivaevae appears to be over 10 feet tall











Preliminary Conclusions

There is a great deal about history that hasn't been fully recorded and more effort needs to be made to organize the hard facts that we can be sure of. This starts with simple tedious things like inventory of archeology sites and methods to examine archeology sites. The archeologist are familiar with this I'm sure but the majority of the public isn't. for more on this see:

It is also clear that ancient civilizations self destructed for one reason or another. We can't always be sure exactly why this happened but there are some common things that led to this even if the details vary primarily war and internal bickering.

Figuring how some of these Ancient Wonders were created is not easy without complete information. The first thing that needs to be done is organize the hard facts better. Then when complex theories run into problems you'll have something to fall back on and check. Traditional scholars should have done a better job at this a long time ago and perhaps they did but if so they didn't present it to the public in the most organized manner. The editors of the Seventy Wonders of the Ancient world did a statistical analysis of a few of their sites for their fact files including Fortress at Mycenae and Tiryns, Greece, The Ancient Roman Aqueducts and The Baths of Caracalla. Unfortunately they didn't provide a consistent system for all their fact files. Further fact files could be completed that include summarized inventories of these sites so that people will have a better idea of what is there.

Even without further study it is clear that ancient civilizations moved well over 100 colossal stones between 100 tons and at least 750 tons, thousands of colossal stones well over 50 tons, dozens of thousands of stones over 10 tons and millions of stones over 2 tons. Experiments have proven that stones up to 10 tons can be moved with an enormous amount of effort. Alleged experiments without sufficient documentation that I know of may have moved stones up to 50 tons with ancient technology. No one that I know of is claiming they can move stones much if any bigger than 50 tons with ancient technology yet the ancients did it.

This leads me to the conclusion that either they had access to technology more advanced than they have received credit for or they had help of some sort from some one who did have more advanced technology.

If they had advanced technology and lost it why did it happen to so many different cultures? Where did they get the technology? Why wasn't there a more gradual build up of technology in some places especially Egypt? Why wasn't their better evidence of how the technology was lost? Is there something about human evolution that leads people to move colossal stones all over the world then forget how as they evolve a little more?

If Ancient civilizations had help from an unknown advanced intelligence why doesn't this advanced intelligence develop and maintain an open honest line of communication? Where could this advanced intelligence come from? What is this advanced intelligence trying to accomplish?

Many people assume that this advanced intelligence is "God". Once they conclude that it is God they also conclude that all the myths about God are true. The problem with that is that many of the myths about God contradict each other and even themselves. Assumptions about God rarely ever result from an effort to think it through and figure out if he exist or what his true nature is. Assumptions about God are usually a result of coerced indoctrination tactics and wishful thinking combined with run away emotions. Many people assume that since they believe God creates miracles therefore God is good. Whether this is true or not depends on whether or not the miracles are real and they actually provide more benefits than they cost. For example the most common alleged miracles are miracle healing. If this is real it seems good but if it leads to indoctrination that prevents people from getting medical attention then it may do more harm than good. Besides if it was good why would God have to do it in mysterious ways without communicating. That doesn't seem to be the miracle provided by this evidence though. The miracle if you want to call it that involves moving colossal stones and other things beyond the ability of primitive man. These colossal stones have often been used as part of religion. They have been used to amaze people but not educate them. Once people have been drawn into religions their education has routinely been restricted by their religion.

If there was an advanced intelligence involved instead of sorting through all the contradictory assumptions about God few of which involved an effort to figure out what God is it might be a good idea to think about how an intelligent being would act. Would he look out for his own best interest? Would he accomplish his goals in the most effective way possible? Would he have an organized thought process that included an organized set of facts about different subjects? If this advanced intelligence wanted to look out for the best interest of the human race wouldn't he start by communicating? wouldn't he educate the human race instead of using mysterious ways to arrange for others to indoctrinate people in his name?

If there was an advanced intelligence influencing the development of civilization what would he gain by doing it in this manner? If he wanted to teach morals or truth this isn't the way to do it. History has proven that people haven't learned either based on religion. If he wanted to study the human race then he could do it by watching the human race develop. This is just speculation at this point but you have to start somewhere if you want to figure out the truth and religion has been looking in the wrong direction for thousands of years without fixing some of the most obvious mistakes, like do you earn trust by refusing to communicate? Of course not but that is what God has been doing assuming he exists and religious leaders have been using indoctrination tactics to convince people that he is trustworthy whether he exists or not. then in the absence of god they have been assuming the role of divine source of truth for themselves.

If this advanced intelligence is studying human social evolution then allowing different societies to develop and then collapse with little or no records would enable him to study a lot of different situations. This would essentially mean that there is an advanced intelligence and it could be the same one that people refer to as god but most of the assumptions about god would be wrong. Most of the old assumptions about god are wrong anyway so trying new ones might lead to the right one eventually even if this one doesn't turn out to be the true one. This hypothesis would involve a researching god if you want to call it that and the human race etc. would be research subjects. This would be an exceptionally large research project bigger than anything most human researchers ever considered, in fact it would have started long before our civilization started and it would still be going on. This research project wouldn't be for our benefit but for the benefit of those that are actually learning from it, those that actually have access to all the information that would be presumably being collected. One thing that this theory would have in common with religion is that god really would be watching but not to punish or reward. He would be watching to learn for himself. He would study everything he doesn't already know and many things that he does already know to confirm them. In order for the human race to benefit from this research project they would have to learn. That would be the benefit a better education, better access to information that could be used to improve their own lives. Even if this theory isn't true surely it would be a good idea to learn from mistakes. Surely it would be a good idea to set up a better education system. If this theory is true then it would mean that this researching god has been controlling education for thousands of years and actually preventing the human race from receiving the benefit of the research project. God would have been using religion to distort the thought process of the human race so that he could benefit at our expense. God would essentially be the greatest tyrant there has ever been. However he wouldn't be evil for the sake of evil as many portray the devil he would just be an advanced intelligence that accomplishes his goals in the most effective way he knows how. The researching god would have some of the characteristics generally attributed to the devil like portraying himself as a benevolent being even when he isn't, using sophisticated ways to lie without literally telling a straight forward lie that can be easily recognized and making promises that come at to high a price. This doesn't mean he would fit the mythological description of the devil since that has as many contradictions as the mythological description of God. Therefore neither one is possible in it's entirety. One of the things the researching god could be studying might be global warming. We're not talking about a god studying simple things he would be studying some things that we would consider very complicated if we were able to understand it at all.

A researching god would keep good records of his work he would use something at least as good as the best computers we have maybe something much better. He would understand the basics of simpler subjects already including indoctrination tactics that people have been using on each other for thousands of years. Only he would understand cult tactics better and if he uses them he would know why even if he doesn't use indoctrination tactics he would recognize when people are using cult tactics in his name and he would have the option of warning people about it. He chose not to use that option. Religious leaders that have used cult tactics often don't fully understand them or what they are trying to accomplish. People like Manson, Jones, Hitler etc. understood how to manipulate people but they screwed it up in the end, they didn't do a good job figuring out their own best interest. Stalin may have done a better job looking out for his own best interest but at such a great cost. Even Stalin didn't benefit that much he lived long but it probably wasn't a happy life. At minimum the researching god gives tacit approval to people who use cult tactics in his name. He gives tacit approval to everything done in his name for that matter. If God did disapprove the first thing he should do is communicate and he doesn't do that. This researching god would also be a cult leader. God would have been around at the birth of civilization. He would have had the option of setting up a rational education system or inspiring religion and standing by silently while they fight wars in his name. God would at best be a negligent or abusive parent or adoptive parent of the human race. He would definitely not be a "Good God".

If god finished with his research project and no longer needed to keep the secrets he could make partial amends if he was so inclined by sharing the results of the research project with the human race but first he would have to come clean. That doesn't mean he should be trusted soon but he should be heard out because people have no better option. This would involve a massive decultification project. Even if this hypothesis is false (as most people will surely believe) we should have a massive decultification process. Even if many people in this generation are not ready for this records of history can be better organized. There are many lessons that can be learned from history, one of the most important ones is don't let demagogues do the thinking for everyone!!


Whether this theory is right or wrong

This theory is currently just speculation there is no solid evidence to support it at least not that is presented in an organized way. There might be circumstantial evidence to support it but it would have to be much better organized before it could be a serious theory. However there are a few things that we can be sure of whether this theory (or any other theory) is right or wrong. Pollution is doing an enormous amount of damage whether it is through global warming or destruction of the rain forest and many animal environments. It would be a good idea to figure out what the most effective way to stop pollution no matter what. War is doing an enormous amount of damage the best way to benefit from war is learn the most effective way to avoid war and learn how to settle problems in a more effective manner. Since special interests have always been the only winners of wars assuming there have ever been winners of wars we need to hold them accountable. We need a better education system no matter what, we need election reform and open government.

Whether there is a researching God or not it would be a good idea to learn from our mistakes. It would be a good idea to learn that demagogues that lead us into war for all the wrong reasons shouldn't be elected to public office. It would be a good idea to organize information so that we have an accurate perception of reality to base decisions on. It wouldn't be a good idea to trust people that distort the facts more than we trust people that present them honestly in an organized fashion that could be confirmed.

I have continued this speculation by considering the possibility that this advanced intelligence influenced mystics and miracles as many religious people believe. or that they might be related to UFOs. On this page I started by organizing links to UFO websites, skeptic websites as well as pages for related scientific subjects.

Full Index
Indoctrination Tactics
The Real God Maybe
Free Speech
Lessons From Histoy
What Religious people really Worship
Theory for everything
107 Wonders of the Ancient World